Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, commonly known as CPR, is an emergency procedure that combines chest compression often with artificial ventilation in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest.
CPR should be initiated for presumed cardiac arrest without concerns of harm to persons not in cardiac arrest. In making this recommendation, ANZCOR places a higher value on the survival benefit of CPR initiated by rescuers for persons in cardiac arrest against the low risk of injury in persons not in cardiac arrest. The risk of disease transmission during training and actual CPR performance is very low. A systematic review found no reports of transmission of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or cytomegalovirus during either training or actual CPR when high-risk activities, such as intravenous cannulation were not performed. If available, the use of a barrier device during rescue breathing is reasonable. After resuscitating a person, the rescuer should reassess and reevaluate for resuscitation-related injuries.